The influence of genetics on physical appearance

Northwestern University This paper proposes that physical appearance is a major factor in the development of personality, because people form opinions by what they see in a person physically, and respond to that person accordingly. In turn, people tend to fulfill the expectations they believe others have for them. Several examples are given of experiments and literature that support this assertion, and a method is suggested for more directly observing this phenomenon experimentally.

The influence of genetics on physical appearance

The influence of genetics on physical appearance

Genes that affect how we look Researchers are beginning to identify the genetic factors responsible for our physical appearance Eye colour Most present-day cases of blue eyes may derive from genetic changes in the HERC2 gene that occurred 6,—10, years ago, during the Stone Age.

In geneticists found they had to look at six different genomic regions and could still only predict with 90 per cent accuracy whether a person had blue or brown eyes. Face shape Studies in mice have identified thousands of short DNA stretches that contain instructions for building a face.

The influence of genetics on physical appearance

Mice with genetic modifications in these regions were born with slight differences in skull or face shape, suggesting that the same genetic regions in humans may play a role in birth defects affecting the face. The thick-hair variant appeared after ancestral Asian and European populations split and seems to have spread rapidly through Asia.

Skin colour At least eight genes affect melanin production, and hence skin colour. A study of such genes found eight associated with differences in skin colour, all linked to the enzymatic pathway of melanin synthesis. Notably, in different populations different combinations of alleles showed evidence of positive selection — more rapid genetic change than expected by chance.

The genetic evidence suggests that dark skin colour is the most ancient as expected given the likely origins of humans in Africa and that lighter skin colour has emerged independently in Asian and European populations, as an adaptation to life at higher latitudes — possibly a need to maximise vitamin D synthesis, which requires sunlight.

Height Analysis from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium and data from other studies have found over 20 genes affecting human height. Weight As with height, there are multiple genes affecting human weight.

One in particular, however, is FTO. Earwax Human earwax comes in two forms — wet and dry. In Japanese researchers identified a single base change in the ABCC11 gene that underpins this difference.

Dry earwax is common in East Asians, though in most other groups wet wax predominates. The dry-type version of ABCC11 is found mainly in Chinese and Koreans and in ethnic populations in other countries that originated in northwest Asia.However, as Sturtevant observed, people can learn to roll their tongue as they get older, suggesting that environmental factors—not just genes—influence the trait.

Consistent with this view, just 70% of identical twins share the trait (if tongue rolling were influenced only by genes, then % of identical traits would share the trait).

Genetics - Wikipedia

Human physical appearance is the outward phenotype or look of human beings. There are infinite variations in human phenotypes, though society reduces the variability to distinct categories. Physical appearance of humans, Genetic, ethnic affiliation, geographical ancestry.

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. The discoverer of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar.

Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed . In order to fully understand this, it is important to first distinguish between a child's genetic inheritance and the actual expression of those genes. A genotype refers to all of the genes that a person has inherited.

A phenotype is how these genes are actually expressed. Genes may also influence some behavioural characteristics, such as intelligence and natural talents. Genes are the blueprint for our bodies. Almost every cell in the human body contains a copy of this blueprint, mostly stored inside a special sac within the cell called the nucleus.

The physical characteristics such as height, weight, colour of eye and skin, social and intellectual behaviour are determined by heredity. Differences in these characteristics are due to the change in the genes transmitted. Human physical appearance is the outward phenotype or look of human beings. There are infinite variations in human phenotypes, though society reduces the variability to distinct categories. Physical appearance of humans, in particular those attributes which are regarded as important for physical attractiveness, are believed by anthropologists to significantly affect the development of personality . Genetics is the branch of science that deals with how you inherit physical and behavioural characteristics, including medical conditions. About genes Your genes are a set of instructions for the growth and development of every cell in your body.

Nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are—from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics.; Nurture refers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture.

Observable Human Characteristics