Adrenal Gland Photo by: Kannanimages The adrenal glands are located on the upper pole of each kidney. In fact, their name designates their location: In the human body, they are small yellowish glands that weigh about five grams 0.
But wait, if you'd been living in a cave, you might well be dead. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes White Nose Syndrome WNS is possibly the most deadly disease to hit wildlife in the United States and is causing one of the most precipitous wildlife declines in recorded history.
WNS has killed millions of bats and every year pushes westwards leaving thousands more dead in its wake. The Little Brown Bat, once the most populous predator in the United States, is now threatened with extinction in perhaps as little as a decade if WNS is not stopped.
And so far, five years after its appearance, no one knows how to stop this fungus and how to help the bats affected and threatened by its virulence. Ina photograph taken by a spelunker clearly showed a white-nose-afflicted bat in Howe Caverns, NY. By the time the fungus was officially identified as a new species of cold-loving fungus inand named Geomyces destructans, WNS had plowed through northeastern caves and had spread as far south as Virginia.
Scientists have entered caves that once housed thousands of bats to discover only sick individuals unlikely to recover. In an old graphite mine near Lake George, N. By late winter the reports start coming in of the latest areas with confirmed WNS cases.
It's a horrible feeling waiting and every few days hearing of yet another colony of bats that has disappeared or another state that has been infected.
Incases of the mysterious disease were confirmed for the first time in Ohio, Indiana, North Carolina and Kentucky and in the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and in Nova Scotia. So far, a total of 18 states, mostly in the eastern U. The fungus has also been known to completely cover the animal, attaching the victim to the cave's surface.
It is possible that other species may contract spores of P.
Why are bats a good substrate for P. It is very unusual for a fungal infection to cause a warm-blooded animal to become sick, but the fungus strikes during the cold months when the bats are in their hibernacula in a state of torpor with lowered body temperatures.
What species get WNS?
At least six species are affected: Though the fungus seems to prefer the 25 species of hibernating bats, each of the 45 species of bats in the United States and Canada may be susceptible to WNS. The Little Brown Bat, the most abundant species in the regions currently affected by WNS, has experienced particularly dramatic population losses.
The fungus appears to live in European caves without affecting bats. It is possible that the fungus was inadvertently carried on the clothes of a European tourist who went for a tour of the caves and may have brushed against a cave wall, depositing and leaving fungal spores behind.Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Epinephrine is normally produced by both the adrenal glands and certain neurons. It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation response, and blood sugar level.
It does this by binding to alpha and beta receptors. Thus, Cannon’s concepts about homeostasis, fight-or-flight responses, the sympathoadrenal system, and even the wisdom of the body, have all evolved, and they continue to incite and inspire researchers more than a half century after his death.
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The Importance of homeostasis. You should be able to explain that homeostasis is the regulation of the internal conditions of a cell or organism to maintain optimum conditions for function in response to internal and external changes.
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 liters of blood that the blood vessels transport. Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, the cardiovascular system is powered by the body’s hardest-working organ — the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist.