Etymology[ edit ] The term Bioethics Greek bios, life; ethos, behavior was coined in by Fritz Jahr in an article about a "bioethical imperative" regarding the use of animals and plants in scientific research. Potter's work laid the foundation for global ethicsa discipline centered around the link between biology, ecology, medicine, and human values. Bioethicists often disagree among themselves over the precise limits of their discipline, debating whether the field should concern itself with the ethical evaluation of all questions involving biology and medicine, or only a subset of these questions.
The formal sciences are the branches of science that are concerned with formal systemssuch as logicmathematicstheoretical computer scienceinformation theorysystems theorydecision theorystatisticsand theoretical linguistics.
Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world empirical knowledgebut rather with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules. Methods of the formal sciences are, however, essential to the construction and testing of scientific models dealing with observable reality,  and major advances in formal sciences have often enabled major advances in the empirical sciences.
Decision theory Decision theory in economics, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, and statistics is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision.
It is very closely related to the field of game law. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophymathematicssemanticsand computer science.
Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas: In mathematics and computer science, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Mathematics and Outline of mathematics Mathematics, first of all known as The Science of numbers which is classified in Arithmetic and Algebra, is classified as a formal science,   has both similarities and differences with the empirical sciences the natural and social sciences.
It is similar to empirical sciences in that it involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a priori rather than empirical methods.
Statistics and Outline of statistics Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. Such people have often gained this experience through working in any of a wide number of fields.
There is also a discipline called mathematical statisticswhich is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject.
The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statistics is an art. Systems theory Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems in all fields of research.
The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking and a generalization of systems science. In this context the word systems is used to refer specifically to self-regulating systems, i.
Self-regulating systems are found in nature, including the physiological systems of our body, in local and global ecosystems, and in climate. Theoretical computer science[ edit ] Main article: Theoretical computer science Theoretical computer science TCS is a division or subset of general computer science and focuses on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing.
These divisions and subsets include analysis of algorithms and formal semantics of programming languages.
Technically, there are hundreds of divisions and subsets besides these two. Each of the multiple parts have their own individual personal leaders of popularity and there are many associations and professional social groups and publications of distinction.
Applied science and Outline of applied sciences Applied science is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science.
Applied science differs from fundamental sciencewhich seeks to describe the most basic objects and forces, having less emphasis on practical applications. Applied science can be like biological science and physical science. Example fields of applied science include.Ethics, also called moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong.
The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles.. How should we live? Shall we aim at happiness or at knowledge, virtue, or the creation of beautiful objects?If we choose happiness, will it be our own or the happiness of all?
Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community without restricting the access of published content. Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine. It is also moral discernment as it relates to medical policy and practice.
a discipline centered around the link between biology, ecology, medicine, and human values. Purpose and scope. The field of bioethics has addressed a broad swathe of . Ignoring the privacy wishes of someone who values privacy would transform the matter from one of personal preference into ethics, because disregarding what someone values is a form of disrespect.
The purpose of this curriculum supplement is to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical. Ideal for students new to the subject, Bioethics: An Introduction for the Biosciences offers a balanced, objective introduction to the field.
With a focus on developing powers of reasoning and judgment, the book presents different perspectives on common themes in . A concise introduction covering the whole field of bioethics Ethical analysis included throughout Mini case-studies in each chapter place ethics into specific contexts Includes exercises and commentary to further clarify ethical discussions Now fully revised, updated and re-ordered, with new chapters on Biofuels and on Synthetic Biology Introduction to Bioethics, Second Edition is primarily aimed at .